List of Components Inside Computer

By Lysis

The complexity of a computer is built around a few main components. All computer users can benefit from knowing what these components are and how they function It will help them make buying decisions and troubleshoot problems.


The processor is the component that does the calculations for the computer. The central processing unit (CPU) is often referred as the "brain" of the computer since this part of the machine controls every aspect of user interaction. A slow processor can be a bottleneck for a computer. A CPU is usually installed with the motherboard, which is the component that connects all the parts together.

Hard Drive

The hard drive is the main storage component of the computer. A computer can have only one or several hard drives. Hard drives require fast processing, but most users focus on the storage capacity of the unit. Storage has advanced throughout the years, so new hard drives have plenty of space for applications and document storage. Hard drives have a propensity to crash, and most users experience at least one sudden hard drive failure. Put backup procedures in place to save important data on a hard drive.


Random access memory (RAM) is the component that is used to store and load applications as the user runs the software. RAM is termed "volatile" since all data is wiped from the memory modules when the computer is turned off. RAM requirements depend on the applications run on the computer. Advanced gaming or graphics software require large amounts of RAM.

Video Card

The video card controls the display on the monitor. The monitor is connected directly to the video card inside a computer. Video cards can be simple, on-board components that are only used for word processing and spreadsheets. High graphics software like video games requires fast video cards that are external from the motherboard. Advanced video cards can cost hundreds of dollars.


The motherboard is the main circuit board that ties all the components together. Everything attaches to the motherboard including the hard drive, CPU, video card, and other peripherals. The motherboard is usually specific to the CPU type, so when a new CPU is purchased, a new motherboard is required, which costs several hundred dollars.

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