The fate of your dropped laptop depends on a number of factors, including the height from which you dropped it, the nature of the fall, the model of the laptop and sheer luck. Some repairs are so minor, you could fix the computer yourself, while others will require consultation with a professional and money out of your pocket. If you've just dropped your laptop and notice there's something wrong with it, don't panic. Do a thorough inspection of the machine and decide whether you will need outside assistance.
Examine the case (your laptop's exterior casing, not the carrying case.) Damages to the case might only be cosmetic and are often not even worth fixing unless you plan to sell the computer. However, severe damages to the case are often good indicators that the hardware has been damaged, too. Check to see if the case if broken, bent, or cracked.
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Take a look at your laptop's screen and check if it is cracked or damaged. This kind of damage will require a professional computer technician to repair. You might need to have the entire screen replaced depending on the extent of the damage.
Plug in your laptop and try to boot up the system. Do this in a quiet room so you can listen for signs of damage. If the laptop is not significantly damaged, you should hear the the fans starting up, the hard drive spinning, and other normal sounds your computer makes during start-up.
Check with your laptop's manufacturer if you hear unfamiliar beeping. Most manufacturers have specific meanings for the different beep sequences a damaged computer will make.
Listen for weird clicking, buzzing or other unusual noises coming from you computer's hard drive. This might be an indication that your hard drive is damaged and will need to be replaced.
If your computer does not turn on at all, check if the battery and plug are connected securely. Verify that there is no damage in these areas and try to boot up again. Contact a professional if your computer appears to be completely dead.