A "P" chart can be created on Microsoft Excel using samples (see Resource). Excel has a built-in chart utility that you can use for this purpose. After you have entered the data in the spreadsheet, the chart utility automatically creates a P chart, such as you would use for comparing proportions of different data items. For example, a class has 50 students and attendance is taken after each class. The data for number of students absent after 10 classes is as follows: 4, 1, 3, 1, 2, 6, 3, 2, 3 and 0. This process can be analyzed using a P chart.

## Step 1

Click "Start" then "All Programs" and select "Microsoft Excel" to open the program.

## Step 2

Type "Class" in cell A1 of the Excel worksheet and type the numbers 1 to 10 in chronological order in cells A2 to A11.

## Step 3

Type "Absent" in the cell B1 and then type the following values (according to the introductory example), one below the other as shown below (B2 to B11):

4 1 3 1 2 6 3 2 3 0

Value "4" should be entered in cell B2, "1" in B3 and so on.

## Step 4

Type "Proportion" in the cell C1, type "=B2/50" in cell C2 and then press "Enter." Proportion is calculated using the value in cell B2 (i.e., 4) and dividing it by 50 (number of students). These instructions cause Excel to automatically perform the calculation.

## Step 5

Point the mouse cursor to the bottom-right corner of cell C2. The cursor will turn to + sign. Then click and drag the mouse cursor vertically down until you reach cell C11. Excel automatically calculates all the values using the formula used in the previous step while replacing B2 with B3, B4 and so on and then fills the corresponding cells.

## Step 6

Type "Total Absent" in cell A13, type "=SUM(B2:B11)" in cell B13, and then press "Enter." Type "Total Possible" in cell A14, type "=10*50" in cell B14, and then press "Enter." SUM is an built-in Excel function that, as instructed here, automatically calculates the sum of numbers in cells B2 to B11 and then displays the sum in cell B13. In this case, 10 is multiplied with 50 using the multiplication operator * and then the result is displayed in cell B14. Here, 10 is the number of classes and 50 is the number of students.

## Step 7

Click in cell "A1," click "Insert" menu and then "Chart." Click "Standard Types" tab on the Chart Wizard.

## Step 8

Click "Line" below "Chart type," select the chart type that is described as "Line with markers displayed at each data value" on the right pane and then click "Next." Click "Columns" radio button on the Data Range tab and then click "Next."

## Step 9

Click "Titles" tab. Type "Samples" in the Category (X) axis box and "p" in Value (Y) axis box. Then click "Next." Click the "Finish" button. P chart will be displayed on the Excel spreadsheet.