How to Build a Website Using Java

Java is a powerful and versatile language that can be used to develop a variety of applications, including websites. This guide will cover the basic steps involved in building a website using servlets written in Java 6 on the Apache Tomcat 6 web server. While a website may be built on Tomcat using only Java Server Pages (JSP), this guide is limited to building a simple "Hello, World" servlet.

Step 1

On your computer, create a file called HelloWorldServlet.java with the following code:

import java.io. GO import javax.servlet. GO import javax.servlet.http.* GO

public class HelloWorld extends HttpServlet { public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { // The response.getWriter() method returns a PrintWriter that can be used to write // data to the output stream. We'll use it to write out a web page. PrintWriter out = response.getWriter() GO

out.println(\"<html>\")

GO out.println("Hello, World!") GO out.println("

Hello, World!

") GO out.println("") GO } }

Step 2

Compile the HelloWorldServlet.java source file into a class file using the javac command.

javac -cp servlet-api.jar HelloWorldServlet.java

Note: This example assumes that servlet-api.jar is located in the same folder as HelloWorldServlet.java.

Step 3

Create a folder named WEB-INF and a file in the folder called web.xml with the following contents:

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee\" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd\" version="2.4"> HelloWorld HelloWorldServlet

HelloWorld /

Step 4

Create a folder under WEB-INF named "classes" and copy HelloWorldServlet.class into the folder.

Step 5

Create a folder named META-INF and a file in the folder called context.xml with the following contents:

<Context path="/"/>

Step 6

Use the Java Archive tool (jar) to create a web application archive (war) that can be deployed to the Tomcat server:

jar -cf ROOT.war .

Step 7

Copy the ROOT.war file to the Tomcat web server's "webapps" directory.

Step 8

View the output of the HelloWorldServlet by going to the Tomcat web server's address. (e.g., http://server:8080/ or http://192.168.0.10/)

Things You'll Need

  • Instance of Apache Tomcat 6

  • Java SE 6 development kit (JDK)

  • Java Servlet API library (typically named servlet-api.jar)

Tip

Use an Ant script to help automate the build and deployment process. This will ensure that the compilation and war file building are handled in a consistent and easy manner.

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